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This article is avai lab le free online at www.bla ckwell-synergy.com1* Stefano2 Matias Arim,3,4 Cherie5 Giulio De Leo,6 Andrew7 Jennifer A. Dunne,8,910 Armand M.5 David J. Marcogliese,112,9 Jane12 Pablo A.4,13,14 John P.5 Erin A. Mordecai,514 Robert15 and David W. Thieltges15
Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links
Kevin D. Lafferty,
Pieter T. J. Johnson,
Neo D. Martinez,
Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect ood-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live.
Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central roblem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the merging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists.
Disease, food web network, parasite.
Ecology Letters (2008) 11: 533–546