Este é um Blog educacional, dedicado a discussões acadêmicas sobre a Ecologia Evolutiva. Contém chamadas específicas relacionadas às disciplinas de Ecologia da Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, e textos didáticos gerais.
Segunda-feira, 2 de Junho de 2008
IBISCA Auvergne

Olá. Estou este mês todo envolvido no projeto IBISCA Auvergne, parte do esforço coletivo e internacional para ampliar a compreensão da distribuição e diversidade de insetos em florestas de todo o mundo. Uma idéia geral do projeto está aqui, neste post. Visões mais intimistas (como estar em um castelo em ruínas, acampado na parte externa, e acordar com a barraca inundada, ou como é a diversidade e distribuição de galhas em um carvalho, ou um dossel, visto do alto de um carvalho) vão aparecer ao longo deste mês.

 

Um abraço a todos

 

Sérvio

 

 

Summary
 
IBISCA-Auvergne is modelled on the previous IBISCA projects conducted in Panama (2003/2004), Australia (2006/2008) and Vanuatu (2006). This project will bring together multinational teams of biodiversity specialists in order to study the biodiversity on a temperate european deciduous forest : la Forêt de la Comté d’Auvergne, near Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de-Dôme, France). Field collections and side studies will be running from the beginning of 2008 to the end of 2009 and will include two five-weeks main periods of field work (in May/June 2008 and May/June 2009). During these two years, specialists in a set of target taxa of plants, animals (mostly arthropods but also molluscs and vertebrates) and fungi, will carry on surveys at and around 20 plots (20m x 20m) ; the plots being selected as representative of five forest « types » (4 plots per « type ») which are characterized by their more or less high level of « naturalness ».
IBISCA-Auvergne is organized by ProNatura International (Paris) and led by Bruno Corbara (Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand) assisted by an executive group (« Comité d’organisation locale ») including the « Société d’Histoire Naturelle Alcide d’Orbigny » (Clermont-Ferrand) and the « Herbiers Universitaires de Clermont-Ferrand », with the support of the « Office National des Forêts » and the « Parc Naturel Régional du Livradois-Forez ».
A canopy access device, the Canopy Bubble, will be brought to aid the work of the project. The Canopy Glider which has been tested in bad weather conditions in Vanuatu and which might still be considered as a prototype, will be tested during the first main field work period in June 2008.
The total cost of the project will be approximately 380 k€. At this stage, the « Département du Puy-de-Dôme » and the « Région Auvergne » committed for 188 k€ and 80 k€, respectively. Moreover, we are actually applying for complementary funds to the European Union, the French Ministry of the Environment and to local privates companies.
At this date (February 15th 2008), participants from France, Belgium, Germany, UK, Brazil, Panama, Colombia, Canada and Australia have committed to the Project.
 


The IBISCA concept
 
Most of the key outstanding questions in our understanding of biodiversity on Earth
relate to beta-diversity - that is: not what exists in the way of genomes, species and
ecosystems at a particular place and time but how this changes through both space and
time. The nature and mechanisms of species turnover from place to place is one of the
major challenges in community ecology especially when the biodiversity being targeted
are the massively diverse invertebrates. Rainforests are the most diverse of terrestrial ecosystems and it is accordingly not surprising that efforts to study biodiversity have focussed on these forests. Numerous dimensions of beta-diversity have been examined within rainforests : they include include vertical stratification (from soil/ground to canopy), compartmentalization between different habitat components, contrasts between primary and secondary forests, faunistic changes from tree species to tree species and changes with extrinsic variables such as latitude or altitude. Most of these studies have been restricted in terms of focal taxa and/or temporal replication, due to the difficulty to bring sufficient specialized expertise to bear on well-defined contrasting sites. This began to change with the 2003-2005 IBISCA-Panama project.
In 2003, Yves Basset (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, PI), Hector Barrios (Universidad de Panama) and Bruno Corbara (Université Blaise Pascal ; principal investigator of the present project), initiated the IBISCA project (IBISCA for Investigation of the BIodiversity of Soil and Canopy). About 40 scientists from 15 countries participated to field work carried out in a centrally conceived experimental design, in the San Lorenzo Protected Area. Taxonomy specialists included, this major international collaboration involves – at this date - more than one hundred scientists from about 20 different countries (Basset et al., 2007)  who are studying more than sixty target groups of arthropods. By far, the IBISCA project is the largest and most comprehensive attempt to date to answer key questions concerning our understanding of the patterns of biodiversity within a forest ecosystem. IBISCA-Panama allowed to obtain individual scientific results from various subsets of the participants. Of more importance, such a modus operandi is expected to produce syntheses in which summaries of the results are combined in order to detect general patterns across different taxa, functionnal groups and/or sampling protocols.
 
From IBISCA-Panama to IBISCA-Auvergne
During a meeting of the original IBISCA-Panama team held in 2005 in Brussels it was agreed that this collaborative, international model was of such potential power that it could and should be applied to other important questions of forest biodiversity elsewhere. It clearly appeared to the participants to the meeting that we needed many other IBISCA projects if we wanted to understand how arthropod diversity is currently distributed and maintained. Consequently, two (related and concomitant) IBISCA projects took place in 2006/2008 (IBISCA-Queensland in Australia and IBISCA-Santo in Vanuatu), both projects aiming to study the biodiversity changes along an altitudinal gradient.IBISCA-Queensland field collections ended just a month ago, and many of us are deeply involved now in the sorting and identification of samples and in the analysis of data.
During IBISCA-Santo and IBISCA-Queensland, the idea of an IBISCA project in a temperate (as well as a boreal) forest was evoqued and discussed, its scientific interest being fundamental and applied. The diversity of the flora and the fauna is considerably better known in a temperate forest than in a tropical one. This does not mean that it is very well known if we consider certain discrete (and « non-attractive ») taxa of invertebrates : there are still many things to learn about biodiversity and its turn-over in temperate deciduous forests of european countries. Moreover, in the tropics, the great majority of the named arthropods are precisely only known by the binomial name they have been given. In a temperate area, a greater number of ecological informations are available in the litterature for (comparatively) a great number of species, which may be of help for the interpretation of large sets of synthetic data. An IBISCA project in a temperate forest may thus be an opportunity to test the IBISCA modus operandi in conditions where the identification of the collected samples is considerably more easy and more rapid, which may be of help for next projects.
 
« La Forêt de la Comté d’Auvergne »
IBISCA-Auvergne will aim to study the biodiversity within a temperate forest in the French Massif Central (Région Auvergne, Département du Puy-de-Dôme) : la Forêt de la Comté d’Auvergne (FCA). FCA is a small forest (1500 ha) situated at about 25 km south-east to Clermont-Ferrand, the main city and capital of both Auvergne and Puy-de-Dôme. This forest is historically a very old one. Probably due to the local geology, the area has never been totally deforested by humans (which means that forest remained present since it installed at the end of the last glaciation) : indeed, in many places, the abundance of stones renders impossible any kind of agriculture. This does not mean FCA is a « pristine », a « natural » or even an « old-growth » forest : during at least 2000 years, it has been more or less intensively exploited (for construction wood, heating wood, charcoal ; and probably as wood-pasture…etc) as witnessed by many historical documents and archaeological evidences. However,it is possible to differenciate some limited areas that still have an rather high degree of « naturalness » compared to the exploited oak-dominated stands or – all the more - to monospecific plantations. Indeed, naturalness should be perceived not as a binary concept - where natural is opposed to artificial - but as a gradient from « less natural » to « more natural » (and vice-versa).
As it is often the case for old european countries, the land in FCA is owned by a very great number of individuals and institutions which reflects the long and complicated History which is suggested above. One part of this forest (about 500 ha) which belonged to the Clermont-Ferrand Public Hospital since the first half of the 19th century, was recently (2000) bought by the Département du Puy-de-Dôme and classified as an « Espace Naturel Sensible » (ENS). This ENS has expanded (to reach ca. 600ha) with new aquisitions, and management plans (including habitat protection) are actually under elaboration. It is expected by the managers of this ENS, i.e. the Département du Puy-de-Dôme - which provided core funding to IBISCA-AUVERGNE - and the Office National des Forêts, that the present project will provide interesting and useful informations for future stategies of management.
 
IBISCA-Auvergne

will follow IBISCA modus operandi which is based on a combination of (1) international collaboration including ecologists, taxonomists, students and skilled amateurs; (2) a set of common research questions; and (3) an integrated experimental design. The large-scale approach includes complementary techniques of canopy access, diverse botanical and zoological sampling protocols, a large number of focal taxa, substantial spatial and temporal replication, large numbers of experts working simultaneously in the field, as well as large numbers of taxonomic specialists studying the material collected and analyzing the associated distribution data.
will bring in some novelties : (1) broadening of the spectra of studied taxa ; (2) applicating the IBISCA modus operandi conceived to study the biodiversity of tropical forests to a temperate deciduous one, and (3) (as a consequence of point (2)) including the human impact dimension, all european forests being the result of a long-term interaction between Homo sapiens and its environment, between « nature » and « culture ».

Phase 1: May 26th to June 28th 2008
The actors
Project Manager : ProNatura International (PNI), Paris (Préesident : Guy Reynaud ; contact Olivier Pascal ; http://www.pronatura.org/fr/ )
Contracting authority: Société d’Histoire Naturelle Alcide d’Orbigny (SHNAO) Clermont-Ferrand, (Président : Frédéric Durand ; http://www.shnao.com/ )
PI: Bruno Corbara, LMGE-CNRS, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand
 
Local Partners

Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand II)
Herbiers Universitaires de Clermont-Ferrand (http://herbiers.univ-bpclermont.fr/ )
Office National des Forêts (Direction Auvergne-Limousin)
Parc Naturel Régional du Livradois-Forez (http://www.parc-livradois-forez.org )

Organizing Committee (Comité d’Organisation locale)

Project Director : Bruno Corbara (UBP & SHNAO)
Head, logistics :Frédéric Durand (SHNAO)
Communication & medias : Viviane Gorce (SHNAO & Productions du Scarabée)
Juridical consultant and treasurer: Éric ESTRAMON (SHNAO)
Base camp logistics : Patrick Burguet de Brissay (SHNAO)
Webmaster : Thomas Calame (SHNAO)

Baseline Programmes and logistics

Benjamin Calmont (SHNAO)
Jean-Philippe Barbarin (SHNAO)
Philippe Bachelard (SHNAO)
Emmanuel Boitier (SHNAO)
François Fournier (SHNAO)
Jean-François Carrias (UBP)
Alexandre Teynié (SHNAO)
Representative/Conseil Général (Espaces Naturels Sensibles): Philippe Morge
Representative/Parc Naturel Régional du Livradois-Forez (PNRLF) : Nadine Nogaret
Representative/Office National des Forêts (ONF) : Laurent Lathuillière

Fundings

Conseil Général du Puy-de-Dôme

 

Conseil Régional d’Auvergne

List of the participants’ institutions

Université Blaise-Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand)
INRA (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique), Theix (Clermont-Ferrand)
Herbiers Universitaires de Clermont-Ferrand
Université de Limoges
Conservatoire Botanique National du Massif Central (Chavaniac-Lafayette)
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris)
INRA de Rennes
Université Paul-Sabatier (Toulouse)
Université de Montpellier II
Université de Metz
Université de Nantes
CIRAD, Montpellier
CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgique)
Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles (Bruxelles, Belgique)
Erlangen Üniversität (RFA)
Griffith University (Brisbane, Australie)
Mac-Gill University (Montreal, Canada)
Universidad de Panama
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panama)
Universidad de Bogota (Colombia)
Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (MG, Brésil)
 



publicado por Sérvio Pontes Ribeiro às 22:44
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