Este é um Blog educacional, dedicado a discussões acadêmicas sobre a Ecologia Evolutiva. Contém chamadas específicas relacionadas às disciplinas de Ecologia da Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, e textos didáticos gerais.
Segunda-feira, 28 de Abril de 2008
TEMAS para a Ecologia Geral

TEMA - Fome no mundo e a capacidade suporte da espécie humana

Alunos,

 

Segue abaixo um artigo técnico-jornalístico publicado por um dos jornais de opinião mais importantes do mundo, o inglês The Gardian. O conteúdo deste artigo deverá ser interpretado por você à luz da teoria de ecologia de populações. Boa leitura, e me tragam dúvidas (pelo email e não como comentários aqui).

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/apr/16/food.biofuels

 

Change in farming can feed world - report

· Ample resources wasted, global study warns
· Biofuels exacerbating shortage of food crops

This article appeared in the Guardian on Wednesday April 16 2008 on p15 of the International section. It was last updated at 00:38 on April 16 2008.
Filipino children eat rice, a staple crop that is under pressure across the developing world

Filipino children eat rice, a staple crop that is under pressure across the developing world. Photograph: Romeo Gacad/AFP/Getty Images

Sixty countries backed by the World Bank and most UN bodies yesterday called for radical changes in world farming to avert increasing regional food shortages, escalating prices and growing environmental problems.

But in a move that has led to the US, UK, Australia and Canada not yet endorsing the report, the authors said GM technology was not a quick fix to feed the world's poor and argued that growing biofuel crops for automobiles threatened to increase worldwide malnutrition.

The report was issued as the UN's World Food Programme called for rich countries to contribute $500m (£255m) to immediately address a growing global food crisis which has seen staple food price rises of up to 80% in some countries, and food riots in many cities. According to the World Bank, 33 countries are now in danger of political destabilisation and internal conflict following food price inflation.

The authors of the 2,500-page International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development [IAASTD] say the world produces enough food for everyone, yet more than 800 million people go hungry. "Food is cheaper and diets are better than 40 years ago, but malnutrition and food insecurity threaten millions," they write. "Rising populations and incomes will intensify food demand, especially for meat and milk which will compete for land with crops, as will biofuels. The unequal distribution of food and conflict over control of the world's dwindling natural resources presents a major political and social challenge to governments, likely to reach crisis status as climate change advances and world population expands from 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion by 2050."

Robert Watson, director of IAASTD and chief scientist at the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, said: "Business as usual will hurt the poor. It will not work. We have to applaud global increases in food production but not everyone has benefited. We have not succeeded globally. In some parts of India 50% of children are still malnourished. That is not success."

Watson said governments and industry focused too narrowly on increasing food production, with little regard for natural resources or food security. "Continuing with current trends would mean the earth's haves and have-nots splitting further apart," he said. " It would leave us facing a world nobody would want to inhabit. We have to make food more affordable and nutritious without degrading the land."

The report - the first significant attempt to involve governments, NGOs and industries from rich and poor countries - took 400 scientists four years to complete. The present system of food production and the way food is traded around the world, the authors concluded, has led to a highly unequal distribution of benefits and serious adverse ecological effects and was now contributing to climate change.

The authors say science and technology should be targeted towards raising yields but also protecting soils, water and forests. "Investment in agricultural science has decreased yet we urgently need sustainable ways to produce food. Incentives for science to address the issues that matter to the poor are weak," said Watson.

The GM industry, which helped fund the report, together with the UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation, the World Health Organisation and the British and US governments, abandoned talks last year after heated debate.

The scientists said they saw little role for GM, as it is currently practised, in feeding the poor on a large scale . "Assessment of the technology lags behind its development, information is anecdotal and contradictory, and uncertainty about possible benefits and damage is unavoidable," said the report.

"The short answer to whether transgenic crops can feed the world is 'no'. But they could contribute. We must understand their costs and benefits," said Watson yesterday.

The authors also warned that the global rush to biofuels was not sustainable. "The diversion of crops to fuel can raise food prices and reduce our ability to alleviate hunger. The negative social effects risk being exacerbated in cases where small-scale farmers are marginalised or displaced form their land," they said.

Responding to the report, a group of eight international environment and consumer groups, including Third World Network, Practical Action, Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth, said in a statement: "This is a sobering account of the failure of industrial farming. Small-scale farmers and ecological methods provide the way forward to avert the current food crisis and meet the needs of communities."

Lim Li Chung, of Third World Network in Malaysia, said: "It clearly shows that small-scale farmers and the environment lose under trade liberalisation. Developing countries must exercise their right to stop the flood of cheap subsidised products from the north."

Guilhem Calvo, an adviser with the ecological and earth sciences division of Unesco, one of the report's sponsors, said at a news conference in Paris: "We must develop agriculture that is less dependent on fossil fuels, favours the use of locally available resources and explores the use of natural processes such as crop rotation and use of organic fertilisers."

 



publicado por Sérvio Pontes Ribeiro às 21:07
link do post | comentar | favorito

pesquisar
 
posts recentes

Convite a visitar meu out...

material de aula por emai...

Mera observação

leitura de contraposição:...

Feliz dia dos professores

Para quem que notícias so...

Preparando para a prova

A mente do cientista e a ...

Resenha do livro " causa ...

Leitura para 14 de março ...

A euqação da Co-existênci...

Avaliação Final de Ecolog...

Para a prova final de Evo...

Belo Monte para cientista...

Seminários - Evolução da ...

Seminários - Evolução Hum...

SemináriosEvolução Bach 2...

Seminários Evol Bach 2011...

Seminários de Evolução 20...

orientações para a prova ...

Março 2013
Dom
Seg
Ter
Qua
Qui
Sex
Sab

1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

17
18
19
20
21
22
23

24
25
26
27
28
29
30

31


Copyscape
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
arquivos

Março 2013

Dezembro 2012

Novembro 2012

Outubro 2012

Agosto 2012

Abril 2012

Março 2012

Dezembro 2011

Novembro 2011

Outubro 2011

Setembro 2011

Agosto 2011

Julho 2011

Junho 2011

Maio 2011

Abril 2011

Dezembro 2010

Novembro 2010

Outubro 2010

Setembro 2010

Julho 2010

Maio 2010

Abril 2010

Março 2010

Dezembro 2009

Outubro 2009

Setembro 2009

Julho 2009

Abril 2009

Março 2009

Dezembro 2008

Novembro 2008

Outubro 2008

Setembro 2008

Julho 2008

Junho 2008

Maio 2008

Abril 2008

links
Copyscape
Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape
blogs SAPO
subscrever feeds